Romani chib

De la Vikipidiya
Ja kai: phiripen, rodipen
Romani
Romani
Labyardi kai: Indiya Tay Pakistan
Savore vakyarne: 4.8 miliyonurya
Chhibaki familiya: Indo-Europikani
 Indo-Irani
  Indo-Ariyani
   Mashkarutno umal
    Romani 
Prinjardo statuto
Prinjardi chhib kai: Shuto Orizari (Republika Makedoniya), prinjardi selorengi chhib kay Svedo, vi-prinjardi kay 79 Gava tay yek Foro (Budeshti) andar Rumuniya
Organizime katar: nai prinjardo organizimos
Chhibake kodurya
ISO 639-1: ni ekh
ISO 639-2: rom
ISO/DIS 639-3: rom — [[]] 

I Romani çhib si yek indiski çhib andar i Indo-Ariyani familiya. Kathe si may pasharni le çhibensa andar o maşhkarutno grupo (Ovestuni Hindî, Gujaratî, Bilî, Kandeşhî, Rajastanî).

Puranipen[editisar | modificare sursă]

Nay dudale dokumenturya te arakhel o puranipen le vaxtosko kana le romenge phure telyarden le Indikane Supbarodvipestar. Atunchi i akanutni Romani chib shai te anel janglimata andar o kodo vaxt.

But bersha sas phendo so e roma aven andar e bashavne (10.000 vay 12.000 jene) dine e Kanojesko thagarendar Shankal le farsikaneske thagareske Behram Gur (po 5-to shelbersh AD).

Neve rodimata (Masitsa, 1991:221) fal te arakhen ke nay shaypen te avel kadya. I Romani chib si yek nevi indo-ariyani chib. Sostar? Si la duy linga (murshikano tay juvlikano). Ji pretele o bersh 1000 sa e indo-ariyanikane chiba (navyarne mashkarutne) sas len trin linga (murshikano, juvlikano tay neutro). Palal kodya e neutre kerden pen murshikane, ama sira lava kerden pen juvlikane, sar misalake अग्नि (agni) pe purani indo-ariyani, याग् (yag) andi Romani, आग (aag) pe hindi. Kadya si vi pe Romani chib (ama dikh kado: [1] - pe rusicko ćhib).

Kana le romenge phure telyarden palal o bersh 1000, o Yanko le Rejosko (vay o Ian Hankock) [2] ke godisarel von sas andar le rajputa so marden ando kodo vaxt le xoraxanurenca. Mashkar e bersha 1001 tay 1026 AD, e xoraxaya (afghanurya tay turkurya), jangle sar Ghaznavidurya, avilen kay Sind tay Panjab tay marden deshueftavar le hindustanurensa tay peravden lenge thema vi forurya. E rajputa (rayenge shave) sas xelavde (soldiers) andar verver jātī (caste) kidine te maren le xoraxanenca. Von gelen ando maripen le lenge juvlenca tay shavenca vi but aver manusha te lacharen lenge butya, te anen tay keren xaben vi aver zhutimata.

I romani chib shay te avel andar e chiba phende katar le rajputa. Si la lava so miazon e lava le chibenge andar sa o Nordutno Tay Mashkarutno Subbarodvip. Si la but lava po maripen: bust (spear andi anglizikani chib), patava (gaiters), xanrro (sword), tover (axe). O lav le manushenge so chi si roma, gaje avel andar gajja (civilian, domestic, non-military), yek prakritikano lav. Aver nav, das si vi andar i prakitikani chib (slave, captive, enemy),vi goro (parne muyasa vi slave).

Sar von telyarden? Vi kathe si sira janglimata. Yek rajputikano jātī, e banjara, mothoden sar but lendar gelen ko oksidento ando kodo vaxt. Vi si janglo ke but hindustanurya sas phandavde le xorxanendar thai tradine ando akanutno Afganistan tay Mashkarutni Asiya. Kodola xoraxaya phenden but chibya, ama i prinjardi sas i farsikani. I romani si la but Farsikane lava tay 80% lendar si vi andi urdu chib. Urdu si i indo-ariaynikani chib le muslimanurenge ando Subbardodvip (but lendar aven andar le phandavne hindustanurendar). Palal so e aver muslimanurya, e Seljikurya, marden le Ghaznaviduren ando bersh 1038, von marden vi i Armeniya ando 1071. Atunshi tradine but phandavde le lenge familiyensa andi Oriyentalutni Anatoliya.

I romani chib si la but Yelenikani (Greshikani)tay armenikane lava. Yekto le romenge phure beshlen andi Armeniya tay palal kodya ando Bisantino Thagaripen. Andi Armeniya von arakhlen o Kristiyanismo. Lava sar xanamik, Patraji aven andar i armenikani chib.

O Ian Hankock godisarel so ando Bisantino Thagaripen kerdilyas i romani chib andar sa e indo-ariyanikane chibya shirdipnastar. I Yelenikani chib (le thagaripnaski chib) si la duyto vastnipen (pashal e indo-ariyanikane chiba) ando romani chibyako kerdipen. Si but lava vi gramatikane elementurya (sufiksurya sar: -os, -is, -mos, -mata, -me(n), –as, -is, -isar-).

So phenen e romane lava pe romenge phure? Lava sar Kher, Udar, Gav, thagar, Bal, khayinisi indo-ariyane tay sikaven e phure shi sas phirutne jene po shirdipen. E lava le butenge so dikhen o phiripen si andar i Anatoliya: Grast, Char (te pravaren e grasta) si andar i armenikani, vurdon andar i Kurdikani, drom, petalo andar i grekikani. Kadala butya avilen vastne (importanto) andi Anatoliya tay kothar line lava te navyaren len. Vi e metalenge butya sas siklile andi Anatoliya. Le nava le metalenge si Yelenikani (bi o somnakai, o rup, tay o sastri so si indo-ariyane), vi le nava le labnenge te kerel buty le metalensa (sar karfin ..)

Ando 13-to shelbersh but roma gelen andi Evropa, avilen ande sa e thema la Evropake, palal kodya andi Amerika, Afrika, Avustraliya. Kana e roma sas xulavde but diyalekturya la romani chibyake inklen.

I akanutni chib[editisar | modificare sursă]

Romany dialects Europe.svg

Akana le diyalekturya si len but lava andar le gajikane vhibya tay avel nishte gramatikane ververimata. Vi si but roma so chi may phenen i chib.

Po akademikano nivo, varekon phenen si yek chib but diyalekturensa vi varekon phenen si mai but chibya. Kon phenen si yek chib sikaven lako ander so si ande sa e dialekturya. Mai sikaven la Evropake chibya sar i italiyanikani, i germanikani tay but aver si si len diyalekturya. Lenge vakyarne chi xatyaren mishto yek avreste tay trebun te den duma pi standardikani chib. I diskusia shay si la politikane phandimata. Sar andi Jermaniya, kay, palal o gogipen divide et impera (xulav tay xulayar), o guverno fal les mishto te arakhel duy sela (nasiye), Roma tay Sinti.

But vaxt e romane diyalekturya sas rigyarde ande vlax tay bivlax. Bernard Gillad Smith kerdyas yekto kadya ando 1915 ando lil The Report on the Gypsy Tribes on North-East Bulgaria. E vlax diyalekturya si le romenge so beshen but vaxt po rumunikano phuv tay si len but lava la rumunikane chibyatar.

Shirindoy le bershesa 1982, o Marcel Courthiade, lekhlyas nishte artikolurya kay sikavel aver shaytnipen te rigyarel e dialekturya. Vov dikhel ande ververipen le diyalekturenge trin straturya.

Yekto si o strato le mai purane diyalekturenge: mechkari, kabuji, xanduri, drindari, erli, bugurji, mahajeri, ursari (rićhinari), spoitori (xoraxane), karpatichi, Polaniya Roma, Kale (Finlandeske Roma), Sinte-Manush diyalekturya.

Po duyto si e diyalekturya: chergari, gurbeti, jambashi, fichiri, yek kotor le diyalekturenge navne vlax andi Rumuniya tay Bulgariya.

Vi ando trinto strato si: kalderash, lovari, machvano

Yek tabelo le ververimatensa:

Yekto strato Duyto strato Trinto strato
phirdom, phirdyom

phirdyum, phirjum

phirdem phirdem
guglipe(n)/guglipa

guglibe(n)/gugliba

guglipe(n)/guglipa

guglibe(n)/gugliba

guglimos
pani

khoni

kuni

pay, payi

koy, koyi

kuy, kuyi

pay, payi

koy, koyi

kuy, kuyi

chib shib shib
jeno zheno zheno


Thai ande Marcel Courthiadeske klasifikasiya vi aven e pogadiyalekturya (navyarde kadya palal o diyalekto pogadi andar i Bari Britaniya). Kadala kerdile andar i gajikani gramantika tay lava (andar o them kay kodole roma beshen) tay nishte romane lava. Pogadialekturya si vi andi Spaniya (kalo), Norvejiya (scandoromani) tay but aver.Dikh vi le Chiba le Romenge.

Ćhibyaki standardizaciya[editisar | modificare sursă]

Yekh standardizaciako zumavipen kerdivel ande shkole Rumuniake. Kothe, o Gheorghe Sarau kerel pustika (lila) thai lavustika (dikcionarya), te zhutisaren o siklyaripen la romane ćhibyako le ćhavenge so janen vai na i ćhib familiyatar. Vov respektisarel le Marcel Courthiadeske rodimatenge (ke si trin straturya la romane ćhibyake thai ke nai yekh chachi vlax romani ćhib/dialekto) thai lenge zumavimata te kerel yekh standarduni ćhib pashal i purani ćhib.

Te kerel standardizacia,te avel yekh "shuzhi" ćhib, sas alosarde indo-ariane gramatikane elementurya vi lava andar verver romane dialekturya. Kana si mai but forme ande dialekturya alosardyovel kodoya so si mai pasharni la purane formate (byav feder sar abyav, abyau, akana sar akanak, ćhib sar shib, shunav sar ashunau vai ashunav, pes thai pen sar pe). Vi e purane gramatikane elementurya si źutime (bareder feder sar mai baro, yekhto te avel i pashnavni thai palal kodya i navni).

Kana si shaiutnipen, andar e purane lava si navne e neve butya: xuryavno (airplane andi englizikani ćhib), vortorin (slide rule), palpaledikhipnasko (retrospectively), pashnavni (adjective). But neolojismurya si andar i rumunikani ćhib sar vremea (wheather, time), primariya (town hall), frishka (cream), sfïnto(saint, holy). Kana shai te avel, yekh romani indo-ariani forma si labyardi ando than le avere forme (murravno feder sar frizero, chingar sar skandalo, dabarel sar chitisarel). Si andine neolojismurya thai andar i hindikani ćhib sar bijli (bulb, electricity), viram (dot, point), lekhipen (writing) vi andar i englizikani ćhib (printisarel, prezidento).

E kale tar i Spaniya so phenen o kalo dialekto shirden te palesiklyoven i romani ćhib thai te palebućhon roma.

Dikh: Standardizuyimi Romani qhib (Selahetin Kruezi)

Vi dikh[editisar | modificare sursă]

Avrutne phandimata[editisar | modificare sursă]

Bibliografiya[editisar | modificare sursă]

  • Hancock, Ian - Ame sam e rromane dzene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, 2001
  • Masica, Colin, - The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: The University Press, 1991
  • Sarău, Gheorghe - Rromii, India şi limba rromani, Bucuresti, 1997
  • Sarău, Gheorghe - Dicţionar rrom-român / Dikcionaro rromano-rumunikano, Ed. Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 2000