Romani chib

De la Vikipidiya
Ja kai: phiripen, rodipen
Romani,Romanes
Labyardi kai: Indiya, Pakistan Tay Afganistan
Savore vakyarne: 4.8 miliyonurya
Chhibaki familiya:
 Indo-Irani
  Indo-Ariyani
   Mashkarutno umal
    Romani,Romanes 
Prinjardo statuto
Prinjardi chhib kai: Shuto Orizari (Republika Makedoniya), prinjardi selorengi chhib kay Svedo, vi-prinjardi kay 79 Gava tay yek Foro (Budeshti) andar Remeniya
Organizime katar: nai prinjardo organizimos
Chhibake kodurya
ISO 639-1: ni ekh
ISO 639-2: rom
ISO/DIS 639-3: rom — [[]] 

I Romani Chib Vay Romane Rakhepen si yek indeski Chib andar i Indo-Ariyani familiya. Kathe si may pasharni le chibensa andar o mashkarutno grupo (Ovestuni Hindi, Gujarati, Bili, Kandesh, Rajastani).

Puranipen[editisar | modificare sursă]

Nay dudale dokumentura te arakhel o puranipen le vaxtosko kana le romenge phure telyarden le Indikane Supbarodvipestar. Atunch e akanutni Romani chib shay te anel janglimata andar o kodo vaxt.

But bersha sas phendo so e roma aven andar e bashavne (10.000 vay 12.000 jene) dine e Kanoyesko thagarendar Shankal le farsikaneske thagareske Behram Gur (po 5-to shelbersh AD).

Neve rodimata (Masitsa, 1991:221) fal te arakhen ke nay shaypen te avel kadya. e Romani chib si yek nevi indo-ariyani chib. Sostar? Si la duy linga (murshikano tay juvlikano). Ji pretele o bersh 1000 sa e indo-ariyanikane chiba (navyarne mashkarutne) sas len trin linga (murshikano, juvlikano tay neutro). Palal kodya e neutre kerden pen murshikane, ama sira lava kerden pen juvlikane, sar misalake अग्नि (agni) pe purani indo-ariyani, याग् (yag) andi Romani, आग (aag) pe hindi. Kadya si vi pe Romani chib (ama dikh kado: [1] - pe rusicko ćhib).

Kana le romenge phure telyarden palal o bersh 1000, o Yanko le Rejosko (vay o Ian Hankock) [2] ke godisarel von sas andar le rajputa so marden ando kodo vaxt le xoraxanurenca. Mashkar e bersha 1001 tay 1026 AD, e xoraxaya (afghanurya tay turkurya), jangle sar Ghaznavidurya, avilen kay Sind tay Panjab tay marden deshueftavar le hindustanurensa tay peravden lenge thema vi forurya. E rajputa (rayenge shave) sas xelavde (soldiers) andar verver jātī (caste) kidine te maren le xoraxanensa. Von gelen ando maripen le lenge juvlensa tay shavensa vi but aver manusha te lacharen lenge butya, te anen tay keren xaben vi aver Jutimata.

I romani chib shay te avel andar e chiba phende katar le rajputa. Si la lava so miazon e lava le chibenge andar sa o Nordutno Tay Mashkarutno Subbarodvip. Si la but lava po maripen: bust (spear andi anglizikani chib), patava (gaiters), xanrro (sword), tover (axe). O lav le manushenge so chi si roma, gaje avel andar gajja (civilian, domestic, non-military), yek prakritikano lav. Aver nav, das si vi andar i prakitikani chib (slave, captive, enemy),vi goro (parne muyasa vi slave).

Sar von telyarden? Vi kathe si sira janglimata. Yek rajputikano jātī, e banjara, mothoden sar but lendar gelen ko oksidento ando kodo vaxt. Vi si janglo ke but hindustanurya sas phandavde le xorxanendar thai tradine ando akanutno Afganistan tay Mashkarutni Asiya. Kodola xoraxaya phenden but chibya, ama i prinjardi sas i farsikani. I romani si la but Farsikane lava tay 80% lendar si vi andi urdu chib. Urdu si i indo-ariaynikani chib le muslimanurenge ando Subbardodvip (but lendar aven andar le phandavne hindustanurendar). Palal so e aver muslimanurya, e Seljikurya, marden le Ghaznaviduren ando bersh 1038, von marden vi i Armeniya ando 1071. Atunshi tradine but phandavde le lenge familiyensa andi Oriyentalutni Anatoliya.

I romani chib si la but Yelenikani (Greshikani)tay armenikane lava. Yekto le romenge phure beshlen andi Armeniya tay palal kodya ando Bisantino Thagaripen. Andi Armeniya von arakhlen o Kristiyanismo. Lava sar xanamik, Patraji aven andar i armenikani chib.

O Ian Hankock godisarel so ando Bisantino Thagaripen kerdilyas i romani chib andar sa e indo-ariyanikane chibya shirdipnastar. I Yelenikani chib (le thagaripnaski chib) si la duyto vastnipen (pashal e indo-ariyanikane chiba) ando romani chibyako kerdipen. Si but lava vi gramatikane elementurya (sufiksurya sar: -os, -is, -mos, -mata, -me(n), –as, -is, -isar-).

So phenen e romane lava pe romenge phure? Lava sar Kher, Udar, Gav, thagar, Bal, khayinisi indo-ariyane tay sikaven e phure shi sas phirutne jene po shirdipen. E lava le butenge so dikhen o phiripen si andar i Anatoliya: Grast, Char (te pravaren e grasta) si andar i armenikani, vurdon andar i Kurdikani, drom, petalo andar i grekikani. Kadala butya avilen vastne (importanto) andi Anatoliya tay kothar line lava te navyaren len. Vi e metalenge butya sas siklile andi Anatoliya. Le nava le metalenge si Yelenikani (bi o somnakai, o rup, tay o sastri so si indo-ariyane), vi le nava le labnenge te kerel buty le metalensa (sar karfin ..)

Ando 13-to shelbersh but roma gelen andi Evropa, avilen ande sa e thema la Evropake, palal kodya andi Amerika, Afrika, Avustraliya. Kana e roma sas xulavde but diyalekturya la romani chibyake inklen.

I akanutni chib[editisar | modificare sursă]

Romany dialects Europe.svg

Akana le diyalekturya si len but lava andar le gajikane vhibya tay avel nishte gramatikane ververimata. Vi si but roma so chi may phenen i chib.

Po akademikano nivo, varekon phenen si yek chib but diyalekturensa vi varekon phenen si mai but chibya. Kon phenen si yek chib sikaven lako ander so si ande sa e dialekturya. Mai sikaven la Evropake chibya sar i italiyanikani, i germanikani tay but aver si si len diyalekturya. Lenge vakyarne chi xatyaren mishto yek avreste tay trebun te den duma pi standardikani chib. I diskusia shay si la politikane phandimata. Sar andi Jermaniya, kay, palal o gogipen divide et impera (xulav tay xulayar), o guverno fal les mishto te arakhel duy sela (nasiye), Roma tay Sinti.

But vaxt e romane diyalekturya sas rigyarde ande vlax tay bivlax. Bernard Gillad Smith kerdyas yekto kadya ando 1915 ando lil The Report on the Gypsy Tribes on North-East Bulgaria. E vlax diyalekturya si le romenge so beshen but vaxt po rumunikano phuv tay si len but lava la rumunikane chibyatar.

Shirindoy le bershesa 1982, o Marcel Courthiade, lekhlyas nishte artikolurya kay sikavel aver shaytnipen te rigyarel e dialekturya. Vov dikhel ande ververipen le diyalekturenge trin straturya.

Yekto si o strato le mai purane diyalekturenge: mechkari, kabuji, xanduri, drindari, erli, bugurji, mahajeri, ursari (rićhinari), spoitori (xoraxane), karpatichi, Polaniya Roma, Kale (Finlandeske Roma), Sinte-Manush diyalekturya.

Po duyto si e diyalekturya: chergari, gurbeti, jambashi, fichiri, yek kotor le diyalekturenge navne vlax andi Rumuniya tay Bulgariya.

Vi ando trinto strato si: kalderash, lovari, machvano

Yek tabelo le ververimatensa:

Yekto strato Duyto strato Trinto strato
phirdom, phirdyom

phirdyum, phirjum

phirdem phirdem
guglipe(n)/guglipa

guglibe(n)/gugliba

guglipe(n)/guglipa

guglibe(n)/gugliba

guglimos
pani

khoni

kuni

pay, payi

koy, koyi

kuy, kuyi

pay, payi

koy, koyi

kuy, kuyi

chib shib shib
jeno zheno zheno


Thai ande Marcel Courthiadeske klasifikasiya vi aven e pogadiyalekturya (navyarde kadya palal o diyalekto pogadi andar i Bari Britaniya). Kadala kerdile andar i gajikani gramantika tay lava (andar o them kay kodole roma beshen) tay nishte romane lava. Pogadialekturya si vi andi Spaniya (kalo), Norvejiya (scandoromani) tay but aver.Dikh vi le Chiba le Romenge.

Chibyaki Shtandardisasiya[editisar | modificare sursă]

Yek shtandardisasiyako zumavipen kerdivel ande shkole Rumuniyake. Kothe, o Gheorghe Sarau kerel pustika (lila) tay lavustika (diksionarya), te Jutisaren o siklyaripen la romane chibyako le chavenge so janen vay na e chib familiyatar. Vov respektisarel le Marsel Courthiadeske rodimatenge (ke si trin straturya la romane chibyake tay ke nay yek chachi vlax romani chib/diyalekto) tay lenge zumavimata te kerel yek Shtandarduni Chib pashal i purani Chib.

Te kerel shtandardisasia,te avel yek "shuji" chib, sas alosarde indo-ariyane gramatikane elementurya vi lava andar verver romane dialekturya. Kana si may but forme ande dialekturya alosardyovel kodoya so si may pasharni la purane formate (byav feder sar abyav, abyau, akana sar akanak, chib sar shib, shunav sar ashunau vai ashunav, pes tay pen sar pe). Vi e purane gramatikane elementurya si Zutime (bareder feder sar may baro, yekhto te avel i pashnavni thai palal kodya i navni).

Kana si shayutnipen, andar e purane lava si navne e neve butya: xuryavno (airplane andi englizikani chib), vortorin (slide rule), palpaledikhipnasko (retrospectively), pashnavni (adjective). But neolojismurya si andar i rumunikani chib sar Vermeya (wheather, time), primariya (town hall), frishka (cream), sfinto(saint, holy). Kana shay te avel, yek romani indo-ariyani forma si labyardi ando than le avere forme (murravno feder sar frizero, chingar sar skandalo, dabarel sar chitisarel). Si andine neolojismurya tay andar i hindikani chib sar bijli (bulb, electricity), viram (dot, point), lekhipen (writing) vi andar i englizikani chib (printisarel, Prezidento).

E kale tar i Spaniya so phenen o kalo diyalekto shirden te palesiklyoven i romani chib tay te palebuchon roma.

Dikh: Shtandardisuyimi Romani chib (Selahetin Kruezi)

Vi dikh[editisar | modificare sursă]

Avrutne phandimata[editisar | modificare sursă]

Bibliografiya[editisar | modificare sursă]

  • Hancock, Ian - Ame sam e rromane dzene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, 2001
  • Masica, Colin, - The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: The University Press, 1991
  • Sarău, Gheorghe - Rromii, India şi limba rromani, Bucuresti, 1997
  • Sarău, Gheorghe - Dicţionar rrom-român / Dikcionaro rromano-rumunikano, Ed. Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 2000