Romani chib

De la Vikipidiya
Ja kai: phiripen, rodipen
Romani
Romani
Labyardi kai: Indiya
Savore vakyarne: 4.8 miliyonurya
Chhibaki familiya: Indo-Europikani
 Indo-Irani
  Indo-Ariyani
   Mashkarutno umal
    Romani 
Prinjardo statuto
Prinjardi chhib kai: Shuto Orizari (Republika Makedoniya), prinjardi selorengi chhib kai Svedo, vi-prinjardi kai 79 gava thai ekh foro (Budeshti)

andar Rumuniya

Organizime katar: nai prinjardo organizimos
Chhibake kodurya
ISO 639-1: ni ekh
ISO 639-2: rom
ISO/DIS 639-3: rom — [[]] 

I Romani chib si yekh indiski chhib andar i Indo-Ariyani familiya. Kathe si mai pasharni le chhibenca andar o mashkarutno grupo (Ovestuni Hindi, Gujarati, Bhili, Khandeshi, Rajasthani).

Puranipen[editisar | modificare sursă]

Nai dudale dokumenturya te arakhel o puranipen le vaxtosko kana le romenge phure telyarden le Indikane Subkontinentestar. Atunchi i akanutni romani ćhib shai te anel janglimata andar o kodo vaxt.

But bersha sas phendo so e roma aven andar e bashavne (10.000 vai 12.000 jene) dine e Kanojesko thagarendar Shankal le persikaneske thagareske Bahram Gur (po 5-to shelbersh AD).

Neve rodimata (Masica, 1991:221) fal te arakhen ke nai shaipen te avel kadya. I romani chhib si yekh nevi indo-ariani chhib. Sostar? Si la dui linga (murshikano thai juvlikano). Ji pretele o bersh 1000 sa e indo-arianikane chhiba (navyarne mashkarutne) sas len trin linga (murshikano, juvlikano thai neutro). Palal kodya e neutre kerden pen murshikane, ama cira lava kerden pen juvlikane, sar misalake अग्नि (agni) pe purani indo-ariyani, याग् (yag) andi romani, आग (aag) pe hindi. Kadya si vi pe romani chhib (ama dikh kado: [1] - pe rusicko ćhib).

Kana le romenge phure telyarden palal o bersh 1000, o Yanko le Rejosko (vai o Ian Hankock) [2] ke godisarel von sas andar le rajputa so marden ando kodo vaxt le xoraxanurenca. Mashkar e bersha 1001 thai 1026 AD, e xoraxaya (afghanurya thai turkurya), jangle sar Ghaznavidurya, avilen kai Sindh thai Punjab thai marden deshueftavar le hindustanurenca thai peravden lenge thema vi forurya. E rajputa (rayenge ćhave) sas xelavde (soldiers) andar verver jātī (caste) kidine te maren le xoraxanenca. Von gelen ando maripen le lenge juvlenca thai ćhavenca vi but aver manusha te laćharen lenge butya, te anen thai keren xaben vi aver zhutimata.

I romani chhib shai te avel andar e chhiba phende katar le rajputa. Si la lava so miazon e lava le chhibenge andar sa o Nordutno thai Mashkarutno Subkontinento. Si la but lava po maripen: bust (spear andi englizikani ćhib), patava (gaiters), xanrro (sword), tover (axe). O lav le manushenge so chi si roma, gaje avel andar gajja (civilian, domestic, non-military), yekh prakritikano lav. Aver nav, das si vi andar i prakitikani ćhib (slave, captive, enemy),vi goro (parne muyasa vi slave).

Sar von telyarden? Vi kathe si cira janglimata. Yekh rajputikano jātī, e banjara, mothoden sar but lendar gelen ko okchidento ando kodo vaxt. Vi si janglo ke but hindustanurya sas phandavde le xorxanendar thai tradine ando akanutno Afganisthan thai Mashkarutni Asiya. Kodola xoraxaya phenden but ćhibya, ama i prinjardi sas i persikani. I romani si la but persikane lava thai 80% lendar si vi andi urdu ćhib. Urdu si i indo-arianikani ćhib le musulmanurenge ando Subkontinento (but lendar aven andar le phandavne hindustanurendar). Palal so e aver musulmanurya, e Seljikurya, marden le Ghaznaviduren ando bersh 1038, von marden vi i Armeniya ando 1071. Atunchi tradine but phandavde le lenge familienca andi Orientalutni Anatoliya.

I romani ćhib si la but grekikane thai armenikane lava. Yekhto le romenge phure beshlen andi Armeniya thai palal kodya ando Bizantino Thagaripen. Andi Armeniya von arakhlen o Kristianismo. Lava sar xanamik, Patraji aven andar i armenikani ćhib.

O Ian Hankock godisarel so ando Bizantino Thagaripen kerdilyas i romani ćhib andar sa e indo-arianikane ćhibya shirdipnastar. I grekikani ćhib (le thagaripnaski ćhib) si la duito vastnipen (pashal e indo-arianikane ćhiba) ando romani ćhibyako kerdipen. Si but lava vi gramatikane elementurya (sufiksurya sar: -os, -is, -mos, -mata, -me(n), –as, -is, -isar-).

So phenen e romane lava pe romenge phure? Lava sar kher, udar, gav, thagar, bal, khainisi indo-ariane thai sikaven e phure chi sas phirutne jene po shirdipen. E lava le butenge so dikhen o phiripen si andar i Anatoliya: grast, char (te pravaren e grasta) si andar i armenikani, vurdon andar i kurdikani, drom, petalo andar i grekikani. Kadala butya avilen vastne (importanto) andi Anatoliya thai kothar line lava te navyaren len. Vi e metalenge butya sas siklile andi Anatoliya. Le nava le metalenge si grekikane (bi o somnakai, o rup, thai o sastri so si indo-ariane), vi le nava le labnenge te kerel buty le metalenca (sar karfin ..)

Ando 13-to shelbersh but roma gelen andi Europa, avilen ande sa e thema la Europake, palal kodya andi Amerika, Afrika, Australiya. Kana e roma sas xulavde but dialekturya la romani ćhibyake inklen.

I akanutni ćhib[editisar | modificare sursă]

Romany dialects Europe.svg

Akana le dialekturya si len but lava andar le gajikane ćhibya thai avel nishte gramatikane ververimata. Vi si but roma so chi mai phenen i ćhib.

Po akademikano nivo, varekon phenen si yekh ćhib but dialekturenca vi varekon phenen si mai but ćhibya. Kon phenen si yekh ćhib sikaven lako ander so si ande sa e dialekturya. Mai sikaven la Europake ćhibya sar i italianikani, i germanikani thai but aver si si len dialekturya. Lenge vakyarne chi xatyaren mishto yekh avreste thai trebun te den duma pi standardikani ćhib. I diskucia shai si la politikane phandimata. Sar andi Jermaniya, kai, palal o gogipen divide et impera (xulav thai xulayar), o guverno fal les mishto te arakhel dui sela (nacie), roma thai sinti.

But vaxt e romane dialekturya sas rigyarde ande vlax thai bivlax. Bernard Gillad Smith kerdyas yekhto kadya ando 1915 ando lil The Report on the Gypsy Tibes on North-East Bulgaria. E vlax dialekturya si le romenge so beshen but vaxt po rumunikano phuv thai si len but lava la rumunikane ćhibyatar.

Shirindoi le bershesa 1982, o Marcel Courthiade, lekhlyas nishte artikolurya kai sikavel aver shaiutnipen te rigyarel e dialekturya. Vov dikhel ande ververipen le dialekturenge trin straturya.

Yekhto si o strato le mai purane dialekturenge: mechkari, kabuji, xanduri, drindari, erli, bugurji, mahajeri, ursari (rićhinari), spoitori (xoraxane), karpatichi, polska roma, kaale (Finlandeske roma), sinto-manush dialekturya.

Po duito si e dialekturya: chergari, gurbeti, jambashi, fichiri, yekh kotor le dialekturenge navne vlax andi Rumuniya thai Bulgariya.

Vi ando trinto strato si: kalderash, lovari, machvano

Yekh tabelo le ververimatenca:

Yekhto strato Duito strato Trinto strato
phirdom, phirdyom

phirdyum, phirjum

phirdem phirdem
guglipe(n)/guglipa

guglibe(n)/gugliba

guglipe(n)/guglipa

guglibe(n)/gugliba

guglimos
pani

khoni

kuni

pai, payi

khoi, khoyi

kui, kuyi

pai, payi

khoi, khoyi

kui, kuyi

ćhib shib shib
jeno zheno zheno


Thai ande Marcel Courthiadeske klasifikacia vi aven e pogadiyalekturya (navyarde kadya palal o dialekto pogadi andar i Bari Britaniya). Kadala kerdile andar i gajikani gramantika thai lava (andar o them kai kodole roma beshen) thai nishte romane lava. Pogadialekturya si vi andi Spaniya (kalo), Norvejiya (scandoromani) thai but aver.Dikh vi le ćhiba le romenge.

Ćhibyaki standardizaciya[editisar | modificare sursă]

Yekh standardizaciako zumavipen kerdivel ande shkole Rumuniake. Kothe, o Gheorghe Sarau kerel pustika (lila) thai lavustika (dikcionarya), te zhutisaren o siklyaripen la romane ćhibyako le ćhavenge so janen vai na i ćhib familiyatar. Vov respektisarel le Marcel Courthiadeske rodimatenge (ke si trin straturya la romane ćhibyake thai ke nai yekh chachi vlax romani ćhib/dialekto) thai lenge zumavimata te kerel yekh standarduni ćhib pashal i purani ćhib.

Te kerel standardizacia,te avel yekh "shuzhi" ćhib, sas alosarde indo-ariane gramatikane elementurya vi lava andar verver romane dialekturya. Kana si mai but forme ande dialekturya alosardyovel kodoya so si mai pasharni la purane formate (byav feder sar abyav, abyau, akana sar akanak, ćhib sar shib, shunav sar ashunau vai ashunav, pes thai pen sar pe). Vi e purane gramatikane elementurya si źutime (bareder feder sar mai baro, yekhto te avel i pashnavni thai palal kodya i navni).

Kana si shaiutnipen, andar e purane lava si navne e neve butya: xuryavno (airplane andi englizikani ćhib), vortorin (slide rule), palpaledikhipnasko (retrospectively), pashnavni (adjective). But neolojismurya si andar i rumunikani ćhib sar vremea (wheather, time), primariya (town hall), frishka (cream), sfïnto(saint, holy). Kana shai te avel, yekh romani indo-ariani forma si labyardi ando than le avere forme (murravno feder sar frizero, chingar sar skandalo, dabarel sar chitisarel). Si andine neolojismurya thai andar i hindikani ćhib sar bijli (bulb, electricity), viram (dot, point), lekhipen (writing) vi andar i englizikani ćhib (printisarel, prezidento).

E kale tar i Spaniya so phenen o kalo dialekto shirden te palesiklyoven i romani ćhib thai te palebućhon roma.

Dikh: Standardizuyimi Romani qhib (Selahetin Kruezi)

Vi dikh[editisar | modificare sursă]

Avrutne phandimata[editisar | modificare sursă]

Bibliografiya[editisar | modificare sursă]

  • Hancock, Ian - Ame sam e rromane dzene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, 2001
  • Masica, Colin, - The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: The University Press, 1991
  • Sarău, Gheorghe - Rromii, India şi limba rromani, Bucuresti, 1997
  • Sarău, Gheorghe - Dicţionar rrom-român / Dikcionaro rromano-rumunikano, Ed. Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 2000